Saturday, 28 July 2018

Possible Futures Video

My latest Youtube video teaches how to use the first conditional to talk about possible futures.


If you like this video, please click 'like' and subscribe to my Youtube channel.

In this video we will talk about the future of the environment. To talk about possible future events and their results we use the first conditional.

Here is an example of a sentence using the first conditional:
If global warming continues to get worse, sea levels will rise.
If global warming continues to get worse is the possible future.
Sea levels will rise is the result of that situation.

To make first conditional sentences we use if + simple present, comma, will/won't + verb.
If we take showers, we will save water.

We use won't for negative sentences.
If we waste electricity, we won't save the environment.

The if clause can come either first or second in the sentence.
If sea levels rise, polar bears will lose their habitat.
Polar bears will lose their habitat if sea levels rise.

Will/Won't can be replaced by modal verbs such as should/might/can.
If you want to help the environment, you should recycle.
If we don't do something now, it might be too late.
You can save money if you don't waste electricity.

Here is an example of a question using the first conditional:
What will happen if we stop polluting the air?
If we stop polluting the air, we will be healthier.

Here are examples of yes/no questions:
If I use a reusable bag, will it help the environment?
Yes, it will.

Will I save money if I walk to walk?
Yes, you will, and you will help the environment.

The if clause in these sentences describes something that is possible. The if clause can be replaced by different time clauses.
When clauses describe something that is certain to happen.
When technology gets better, we will use more renewable energy.

As soon as is used to say what will happen immediately after something else happens.
I'll buy an electric car as soon as I save enough money.

We use until to say something will or won't happen up to a particular point.
Wildlife will lose their habitat until we start to care about the environment.
Air quality won't get better until we plant more trees.

We use unless to describe a result if something doesn't happen.
The ice caps will melt unless we stop global warming.

Let's play a game about consequences. Can you continue the conversation by saying the consequences of the previous result?
What will happen if we pollute the air?
If we pollute the air, the earth will get hotter.
If the earth gets hotter, the ice caps will melt.
If the ice caps melt...
What do you think will happen if the ice caps melt? Write sentences in the comments.

Here are some more questions which you can answer in the comments section to give you some practice and get you thinking about the environment.
1. What will happen if we pollute the oceans?
2. What will happen if we continue to burn fossil fuels?
3. What will happen if we don't protect the rainforests?
4. What will happen if we don't recycle?
5. What will happen if we plant more trees?
Answer these questions by putting your answers in the comments section and I'll check your answers.









Wednesday, 16 May 2018

Past Habits Video

My latest Youtube video teaches how to talk about past habits using used to.



If you like this video, please click 'like' and subscribe to my Youtube channel.


Here's the script of the video:


In this video we will learn how to talk about past habits and repeated action using used toWe use used to + verb to talk about repeated actions in the past that don't happen anymore. For example:
I used to play video games, but now I'm too busy.

To make negative sentences we say didn't use to + verb.
I didn't use to like mushrooms, but I like them now.

Note that in spoken English we often say never used to rather than didn't use to.
I never used to do my homework on time.

Here is an example of a yes / no question:
Did you use to have a pet? Yes, I did. I used to have a dog.

Let's look at some more examples:
I used to do taekwondo when I was younger.
She used to take ballet lessons.
He didn't use to get good grades.
Did you use to play a lot of sports? Yes, I did. I used to play sports every day.
What board games did you use to play? I used to play Monopoly.

Used to is only used when talking about the past and shouldn't be confused with be used to or get used to. If you are used to something you are accustomed to it, for example:
I eat kimchi every day. I'm used to spicy food.

If you are getting used to something then you are becoming accustomed to it.
My new job is really demanding, but I'm slowly getting used to it.

Wednesday, 14 February 2018

Describing Clothing Video

My latest Youtube video teaches how to describe clothing and people's actions using the present continuous.


If you like this video, please click 'like' and subscribe to my Youtube channel.

Here's the script of the video:


In this video we will learn how to talk about the clothes people are wearing and the actions they are doing using the present continuous. Before we cover the target vocabulary and grammar, let's look at an example of the language we are going to learn.

What is she wearing?
She's wearing a pink, cotton t-shirt and blue, denim jeans.
What is she doing?
She's doing laundry. 

Let's start with the names of items of clothing.
a hat
a vest
shorts
sandals
high heels
a dress
a blouse
a skirt
a jacket
a sweater
jeans
gloves
a scarf
boots
a suit
shoes
a jacket
a shirt
a neck tie
a belt
pants
a t-shirt
flip-flops
sunglasses
a cardigan
sneakers

When describing clothes we can talk about colour, pattern and material. When describing the colour of clothes, we might want to broaden our colour vocabulary. These colours that you might not know are often used to describe clothes.
khaki
navy
sky blue
lilac
aqua
burgundy
beige

Now let's look at patterns.
plain
plaid or check
gingham
argyle
polka dot
striped
printed

And materials.
leather
cotton
wool or woolen
silk
denim
nylon

In a sentence, adjectives are usually in a set order before the noun. First colour, then pattern, material and finally the noun.

He is wearing a purple, check, cotton shirt.

Notice that the article comes before the first adjective. Plain is an exception. It isn't really a pattern, but is an adjective of the colour, so it comes before the colour.

She is wearing a plain yellow, cotton dress.

To describe what someone is wearing and the action they are doing we use the present continuous. To make present continuous sentences we be + verb-ing. This chart shows the grammar we need to make present continuous sentences.

I am wearing a shirt.
He is wearing glasses.
You are riding a bike.

Now we have all the grammar and vocabulary we need. Let's look at some examples.

What is he wearing?
He's wearing a plain grey, cotton cardigan, a red t-shirt and blue, denim jeans.
What is he doing?
He's talking on the telephone.

What is she wearing?
She's wearing a black and white, printed, nylon dress and black high heels.
What is she doing?
She's listening to music.

What is he wearing?
He's wearing a plain navy, woolen suit.
What is he doing?
He's riding a bike.








Friday, 29 December 2017

British Food Video

My latest Youtube video introduces traditional British food.


If you like this video, please click 'like' and subscribe to my Youtube channel.

Here's the script of the video:

British food sometimes has a bad reputation abroad, but food in the UK is far from being bland. London is a great place for fine dining and many celebrity chefs, such as Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay are British. While in any city in the UK you can find international restaurants with great food from all over the world, traditional British food is still popular at home and abroad. But what is traditional British food?

Let's start with breakfast. A full English breakfast might not be the healthiest way to start the day, but it certainly is the tastiest. A full English usually includes sausages, bacon, fried tomatoes, baked beans, eggs and buttered toast.

For lunch there is nothing more convenient than a sandwich. My favourite is a BLT, made with bacon, lettuce and tomato. Of course sandwiches are popular throughout the world, but this simple meal was invited by the Earl of... yes, you guessed it... the Earl of Sandwich. Sandwich is a town in the South East of England.

For an afternoon snack there's Westcountry cream tea. Scones with butter, jam and cream with a cup of tea. The British love to drink tea, but always with a little milk.

For dinner I'll introduce the top 5 traditional British meals.
#1. Roast beef. So popular that the French call the English Rosbif. It is served with roasted vegetables, potatoes and Yorkshire pudding, and covered in gravy.
#2. Fish and chips. The fish is usually cod or haddock which is deep fried in batter. Served with chips and mushy peas.
#3. Pie and chips. Popular pies are steak and kidney or steak and ale. Served with chips.
#4. Shephard's pie. My favourite. Made from minced lamb covered with mashed potato with cheese on top. Served with steamed vegetables. A similar dish is cottage pie which is made with beef instead of lamb.
#5. Toad in the hole. Sausages baked in Yorkshire pudding batter, served with gravy and roast vegetables. Umm... delicious.

That's the end of this quick introduction to British food. Tell me about the food from your country in the comments section.

Thursday, 23 November 2017

Shopping and Prices Video

My latest Youtube video shows how to talk about prices when shopping.


If you like this video, please click 'like' and subscribe to my Youtube channel.

Here's the script of the video:

In this video we will learn how to talk about prices and some of the language we need when shopping.

To ask the price of singular items we can say:
How much is the t-shirt? It's 60 dollars.

To ask the price of plural items we can say:
How much are the jeans? They're 150 dollars.

To comment on the price, we can say:
It's expensive.
It's reasonable.
It's good value.
It's cheap.

Let's look at some examples.

How much is the dress? It's 500 dollars.
It's expensive.

How much are the gloves? They're 4 dollars and 50 cents.
They're cheap.

Now let's review big numbers.
ten million
one million
one hundred thousand
ten thousand
one thousand
one hundred
ten

Now let's combine these big numbers.
ten million five hundred thousand
one million five hundred and fifty thousand
one hundred and fifty-five thousand
fifteen thousand five hundred
one thousand five hundred and fifty
one hundred and fifty-five
fifteen

Let's practice big numbers in a pet store.

Customer: Do you have goldfish?
Salesclerk: Yes, we do.
Customer: How much are they?
Salesclerk: They're 5,000 Won each.
Customer: I'll take two, please.

Customer: Do you have monkeys?
Salesclerk: No, I'm sorry, we don't.

Customer: Do you have cats?
Salesclerk: Yes, we do.
Customer: How much are they?
Salesclerk: They're 300,000 Won each.
Customer: That's too expensive.

To talk about near items we can use this for singular things and these for plural things.
For far items we can use that for singular things and those for plural things.

How much is this watch? It's 25,000 Yen.
How much is that umbrella? It's 850 Yen.
How much are these earring? They're 4,900 Yen.
How much are those shoes? They're 35,000 Yen.
How much is this belt? It's 10,000 Yen.
How much is that handbag? It's 49,000 Yen.
How much are these high heels? They're 29,000 Yen.
How much are those socks? They're 250 Yen.

Here's a homework assignment. Answer these questions by putting your answers in the comments and I'll check your answers.
1. What was the last piece of clothing you bought?
2. What colour was it?
3. How much did it cost?
4. Where did you buy it?
5. When did you buy it?
Answer in full sentences.

Thursday, 2 November 2017

Describing People Video

My latest Youtube video shows how to describe people.



If you like this video, please click 'like' and subscribe to my Youtube channel.

Here's the script of the video:

In this video we will learn how to describe people's appearance and personality.

Here are some adjectives we can use describe someone's personality.
honest
talkative
shy
funny
outgoing
nice
patient
confident

What's she like? She honest and patient.
What's he like? He's funny and kind.

There are many things we can talk about to describe someone's appearance. Let's look at each one in turn. To talk about someone's attractiveness, height and weight, we can ask one simple question.

What does she look like?
She's cute.
She's pretty.
She's beautiful.

He's handsome.

He's short.
He's average height.
He's tall.

He's thin.
He's slim.
He's average weight.
He's muscular.
He's a little heavy.

She has short hair.
She has medium length hair.
She has long hair.

She has straight hair.
She has wavy hair.
She has curly hair.

She has blond hair.
She has black hair.
She has brown hair.
She has red hair.
She has grey hair.

He is bald.
He has a moustache.
He has a beard.

To talk about someone's age, we can ask: How old is he? There are a number of different ways we can describe someone's age if we don't know their exact age.

He's in his early twenties.
He's in his mid-twenties.
He's in his late twenties.

She's kind of young.
She's kind of old.

She's around 20 years old.
She's around 30 years old.

We use the present continuous to talk about the clothes someone is wearing. What is he wearing? He's wearing a blue t-shirt and blue jeans. Let's review clothing vocabulary.

a blouse
a skirt
a jacket
a sweater
jeans
boots
gloves
a scarf
high heels
a dress

a suit
shoes
a jacket
a shirt
a neck tie
a belt
pants
a t-shirt
flip-flops
shorts
sunglasses
a uniform

There are a few items of clothing that weren't in any of those pictures.
sneakers
socks
a hat
glasses
a raincoat

Now we have all the vocabulary we need, let's look at some examples of questions and answers.
What is she like? She's outgoing.
What does she look like?
She's pretty.
She's average height and slim.
She has long, straight, brown hair.
How old is she? She's in her mid-twenties.
What is she wearing? She's wearing a white blouse and grey skirt.

What is he like? He's honest and kind.
What does he look like?
He's handsome.
He's tall and muscular.
He's bald.
How old is he? He's around 30 years old.
What is he wearing? He's wearing a purple sweater, blue jeans and tan shoes.

What's she like? She's shy.
What does she look like?
She's cute.
She's short and slim.
She has long, curly, brown hair.
How old is she? She's kind of young.
What is she wearing? She's wearing a blue school uniform.

What is he like? He's funny.
What does he look like? He's cute.
He's short and slim.
He has short brown hair.
How old is he? He's kind of young.
What is he wearing? He's wearing a red t-shirt, blue jeans and sneakers.

Here's a homework assignment. Pause the video and describe these two people in the comments in as much detail as you can and I'll check your answers.



Tuesday, 24 October 2017

Health Problems Video

My latest Youtube video shows how to talk about health problems and solutions.


If you like this video, please click 'like' and subscribe to my Youtube channel.

Here's the script of the video:

In this video we will learn how to talk about health problem and solutions. There are lots of adjectives we can use to describe feeling unwell.
I feel terrible.
I feel horrible.
I feel awful.
I feel unwell.
I feel sick.
I feel sad.
I feel really bad.

Now let's look at some health problems and solutions.
I have a cold. You should eat some chicken soup.
I have a stomach ache. You should lie down.
I have a backache. You should take a hot bath.
I have the flu. You should go to bed.
I have a sore throat. You should drink some hot tea.
I have a headache. You should get some rest.
I have a fever. You should take some medicine.
I have a cough. You should see a doctor.
I have a toothache. You should see a dentist.

Let's review and learn some more language by listening to a conversation.
A: I feel terrible.
B: What's the matter?
A: I have a cough.
B: That's too bad. You should see a doctor.
A: I think you're right.
B: I hope you get better soon.